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  Vincent L. Michael, "Recovering the Layout of the Hull House Complex."

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The Hull House that Jane Addams purchased from the Charles Hull estate in 1889 was a two-story low-gabled brick mansion in the Italianate style. The basic cubic mass of the home was offset by a large octagonal bay on the south side of the house, a smaller polygonal bay on the north side of the house, and an ample verandah. Chimneys rose along the north and south walls. Hallmarks of the style included brackets supporting overhanging eaves, round-arched windows set in pairs, and a small, low-pitched cross-gable above the projecting entrance bay, which was mirrored by a projecting section of the verandah, or porch. The house may or may not have had a cupola. Photographs from as early as 1890-91 show no evidence of the cupola that was restored in 1964-65.

Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr moved into the second floor of the house in August, 1889 and immediately experienced an overflow of interest in their newly established boys' clubs, libraries, nurseries and kindergartens. Yet they did not even occupy the entire mansion, sharing it with Mr. Sherwood's music school and the office of a furniture factory.1 Repairs were made to the verandah, which Irving Pond later recalled as extending around three sides of the building, but as early as 1890-91 is shown to run only the width of the front façade.2 From the beginning, Jane Addams began an often contentious relationship with her landlady, Miss Helen Culver in an effort to expand and refine the settlement's physical plant.3


Sherwood departed in March 1890 and the settlement soon filled the mansion with day nurseries, boys' and girls' clubs, musical, theatrical and educational programs. Addams requested the verandah to be taken down due to its disrepair and concreted the cellar floors to create additional usable space in the mansion.4

Set back from Halsted Street, the house was flanked in 1890 by the two-story Butler Building south of the forecourt, now ornamented with a low knee wall.5 The Reading Room was on the first floor and the second floor held the soon-to-be-famous Butler Art Gallery. The Butler building was designed by the firm of Irving and Allen Pond, known as Pond & Pond, among the group of progressive Chicago architects being influenced by the English Arts & Crafts movement as well as local efforts to abandon historic stylings for a "modern" architecture. The Butler Building was simple, with geometric brick patterning and horizontal grouping of the punched window openings. The mansion visible in 1890 does not have a cupola, but retains a low-pitched projecting gable and the verandah, indicating that the new building was added prior to the planned demolition of the verandah, which by this time does not wrap the sides of the mansion.


The programs of Hull House continued to expand in the early 1890s, often occupying nearby rental space. In 1893, Jane Addams secured a 7-year lease from Miss Culver for a parcel on Polk Street, and there built a 2-story coffee house and gymnasium to the west and north of the mansion.6 The design is clearly in line with the Arts and Crafts aesthetic adopted by Pond & Pond with a sloping roofline punctuated by slender dormers, angular window divisions, and contrasting brickwork. Steep-gabled dormers and diamond-paned windows reflect the current medievalist-inspired Arts & Crafts aesthetic and the design bears a great similarity to period designs by other members of the Chicago Arts & Crafts Society, including Frank Lloyd Wright.7

This style would later be replaced by more stately designs with strengthened corners and shallow arches, but the fact that Hull House grew like topsy would effectively be masked by the architectural skills of the Pond & Pond partnership, reinvigorated by the Pond's return visits to Europe and their development of a settlement house "style" by the turn of the century. A sketch by Pond of the Gymnasium and coffee house building was published in Inland Architect and News Record in July 1893. A one-story building (likely the frame livery) is pictured to the east and a three-story store and flats to the west, followed by a small cottage further to the west along Polk Street.8

1893 also witnessed the construction of a one-story brick boiler house west and south of the mansion proper.9 This would provide heating and perhaps lighting for the complex as it grew over the next nine years. A photo illustrating the new coffee house and gymnasium shows the mansion -- with a low-pitched gable facing Polk Street and a polygonal bay -- behind the one-story livery building which ran to the corner of Polk and Halsted.10 Since the alley behind Hull House had not yet been created, the livery building filled the entire site of the later Children's Building (1895) and 1898 coffee house and auditorium.

1895 -- January to April

Addams was planning more expansion in January 1895, including a third-floor addition to the mansion with "seven single rooms and two bathrooms" which was finished about March 1895 and provided additional women's residences.11 A simple contrasting diaper brick pattern visually linked the mansion addition to the Butler Building. Addams also referenced an "overhauling" of the coffee house at this time.12

1895 -- May to December

The 4-story Children's Building was designed by Pond & Pond and work began in July of 1895.13 The créche (daycare facility) had 30 children and had been renting a one and one-half story building around the corner on Ewing Street, while the Kindergarten served twice that number, and new facilities were needed.14 The new building was funded by Charles Mather Smith and featured two large club rooms on the first floor; two nurseries, a kitchen and dining room on the second floor, a large kindergarten on the third floor and a Music room and Art studio underneath the cross-gabled and dormered fourth floor.15 By August, the new building was erected to its third story, and the massive pillars supporting the two-story porch facing the court in front of the mansion were in place, causing Jane Addams some concern.16 Her concern about the oversized pillars moderated in September as the Children's Building was largely complete, causing Addams to gush: "It is such a satisfaction to have one building all of red brick and goodly to look upon!"17 The Kindergarten was operational and the building was up and running by the Fall of 1895.

The Children's Building reflected current Classical trends in architecture, notably in the balusters of the porch and the "blind" Palladian windows in the Halsted Street gable ends, but overall it continued the comfortable redbrick English Arts and Crafts aesthetic. Punched groups of windows lightly molded with projecting sills and recessed tympani, its homelike roofline accented by dormers with triangular and round-arched gables.

A July newspaper article also referenced a rebuilding of the kitchen, laundry and dining facilities in the mansion, and the transformation of the Drawing Room into a Reception Room. This may have involved the removal of a wall separating the stair hall from the Drawing Room.


In 1896 a single story was added to the top of the Butler Building with a gabled and dormered roof that linked it architecturally across the Halsted Street forecourt to the Children's Building to the north.18 Pond & Pond generally designed the top floors with gables and cross-gables to facilitate their use as studio spaces or apartments.

Now the complex consisted of the mansion flanked across its forecourt by two tall-cross-gabled buildings and the Coffee House and Gymnasium to the rear along Polk Street. Another courtyard stood between the Children's Building and the coffee house and gymnasium.19 A photo published in 1898 shows the new third floor as well as the 3-story frame Italianate building to the south along Halsted.20

The gymnasium building was used not only for athletics but also as a public assembly space for theater. Within the decade two more large auditoria would be built along Polk Street: the 1899 coffee house and auditorium and the 1904 Women's Club.


By 1898 Jane Addams had finally convinced Helen Culver to sell outright some lots on the block, which had never been subdivided for sale.21 Lots on Ewing were to be sold for $125 a foot and those on Polk for $150 a foot.22 There were concerns about the old nursery building on the site, and the mattress factory, whose lease was through 1906.23

The Jane Club was a cooperative of young working women founded in 1892 "by a group of trades-union girls, assisted by Hull House," according to Alzina Stevens.24 The club was managed by its members, and apparently existed as a separate organization, although Hull House provided the donor source, architect and funding for the construction of the building. In the Spring and Summer of 1898 Pond & Pond designed the Jane Club, a four-story Renaissance Revival red brick building with 26 bedrooms for young working women , heated and lighted from the Boiler House.25 Rusticated corner blocks and the flat-topped short attic story give it a Neoclassical feel in contrast to the quaint Arts and Crafts aesthetic of the main Hull House buildings. It was flanked to the west by a 2-story frame Federal-style building.26


The courtyard between the Children's Building and the coffee House and Gymnasium building to the west along Polk Street was filled in at this time with the new coffee house and auditorium. Drawings for this building, including the one-story kitchen flanking the rear of the mansion are dated October 22, 1898, but it is likely the building was constructed until early 1899, since it does not appear in 1898 photos.27 An architectural perspective rendering of the new building was published in September 1899 in The Commons.28 It also appears in the 1900 Survey and was published with photographs in the January 1900 issue of Inland Architect and Building News.29 Presumably the original coffee house to the west was converted to its later use as the shops and textile museum with construction of the new coffee house, or shortly thereafter.

Two renderings of the complex, drawn by Irving K. Pond, were published in the September 1899 issue of The Commons. Pond also executed a rendering from the corner of Polk and Halsted in 1899 that illustrates several significant changes, including the addition of two stories onto the original gymnasium and coffee house building.30


An October 1900 Plat of Survey shows the following: The original mansion flanked to the south by the 2-story Butler Building and the brick boiler house. To the north the 1898 2-story brick coffee house and auditorium fills the space between Halsted Street and the "proposed alley" to the west along Polk Street with a vacant lot to the west. This is followed by the 1893 coffee house and gymnasium but the survey notes "2 story brick after moving", indicating the planned move westward to allow the creation of a new alley parallel to Halsted Street and in line with the alley next to the Jane Club.31 This is followed to the west by a vacant lot on Polk (later the site of the Women's Club Auditorium) and then another 2-story brick building (later site of Boys Club) extending 61 feet back followed in turn by a 1-story brick building extending another 57 feet back to the perpendicular "proposed alley". The Jane Club, 78 feet deep with a small hyphen on the back is shown, the only Hull House-related building on Ewing Street.32

In addition to the January 1900 article in Inland Architect the complex was featured along with several other settlement house designs in the Chicago Architectural Club's Annual Exhibition, held each Spring at the Art Institute of Chicago.33 The sketch of the complex from Polk and Halsted by Irving Pond shows an additional story on the 1893 gymnasium and coffee house building, a reworking of its façade to match the Renaissance-inspired rustication of the adjacent coffee house and auditorium, and a decorative arch crossing the alley between the two buildings. Accompanying plans published in the catalog show that the rear addition to the mansion functioned as the resident's dining room, adjacent to the kitchen, which also served the coffee house. The upper two stories of this addition to the mansion were women's residences. The Butler Building had a lecture room on the ground level, art gallery on the 2nd floor and men's residences on the third floor.

This plan also details how the 1893 gymnasium and coffee house was to be adapted. The front was a cooking school with a bakery behind, while the rear of the first floor was lockers and showers for the gymnasium above and the manual training rooms. The second floor of the front was the men's club and the soon-to-be-built third floor was designated for studios. In November of 1900 landlady Helen Culver gave Hull House a 50-year lease on all of the Halsted Street frontage, allowing the settlement house to plan further expansion and more new buildings.34


In 1901 the Gymnasium and former coffee house building was moved a short distance to the west, and a third story and a new façade were added. The new façade design more closely reflected the design vocabulary of the newer buildings nearby and Pond & Pond's published design of the previous year.35 It is likely that the ground floor was converted at this time into the "shops", also known as the Labor and textile museum. Moving the building allowed for the opening up of the alley parallel to Halsted Street, as indicated on the subdivision survey of 1900.


1902 witnessed the construction of the largest and least-heralded section of the Hull House complex, the Apartments building that stretched from Halsted to the alley along Ewing Street (later Cabrini Street) as well as the Men's Club building south of the Butler Building, and the small entrance gate and second-floor studio connecting the two.36 This project reflected both the long-term lease granted by Miss Culver and the desire of residents, employees and others to live in the complex, since all 12 of the apartments were leased prior to their May 1 occupancy. The majority of the funding came from the reliable Mrs. Louise DeKoven Bowen.

The summer of 1902 saw the completion of the new Boiler House in its location behind the mansion and Butler Building.37 The roof of the Boiler House, set 8-10 feet above grade, functioned as a terrace in the courtyard that had been created by the new apartment complex along Ewing (Cabrini) Street.


Pond & Pond architectural drawings dated June 27, 1904 attest to the design of the Women's Club north of the original 1894 gymnasium and coffee house.38 This building consisted of a large 700 seat auditorium set on a raised English basement. The 1893 coffee house and gymnasium building, now three stories, had become the shops and textile museum on the first floor with the gymnasium and locker rooms above.39

By 1904 the complex consisted of the original mansion; the 3-story Butler Building to the south and the Men's Building south of that. Behind the mansion, there was a single story kitchen extending to the north behind the 1899 coffee house and auditorium which filled the space between the Children's Building and the alley west of Halsted along Polk. A small bakery and storeroom lay south of the kitchen and north of a corridor-like extension from the original mansion which housed the resident's dining room.

The 1899 coffee room with auditorium above had filled in the space along Polk Street between the 1893 gymnasium and coffee house and the 4 story Children's building at the corner of Polk and Halsted. Thus the new coffee room and auditorium was "infill" between the corner Children's Building and the 1895 dining room and gymnasium building, with an alley inserted between. Beyond the 1895 gymnasium building was the new Women's Club with auditorium seating 700.40

A Boiler House extended from the original mansion to the south and would later be flanked by the Music School.41 The two-story Dining Room would be added atop the boiler house in 1907, with the aboveground portion of the boiler house becoming a terrace on the main interior courtyard.42 This courtyard lay south of the original house, flanked in front along Halsted by the lecture hall and men's residence, a 3-story complex of two buildings, and the Hull House apartments to the south fronting Ewing Street.43 West of the alley behind this block were the 3-story shops and gymnasium building to the north, followed by the Women's Club. On Ewing Street west of the alley was the Jane Club cooperative for working women.

The Apartments are the most frequently reproduced image of the Hull House complex, and it could be argued that this was the building most worthy of preservation and most easily identified with the history of Hull House. It is curious, given its visual prominence and a location that is not encumbered by any new buildings, that it was not preserved. Its absence may reinforce the idea that the dining hall represented the least "challenge" in scale and siting to the original mansion, which the University and others intended to focus on.

It is worth reflecting on the fervent erection of auditoria and theatre spaces by Hull House during these early years. Between 1893 and 1904 three separate auditorium spaces accomodating up to 700 people were built at Hull House -- first the gymnasium, which was immediately used as a theater and auditorium in 1893, the new auditorium in 1899, and the Women's Club in 1904. While many might argue that the immigrant communities around Hull House had existing support systems in churches and synagogues and even in saloons, there was clearly a demand for large assembly space that only Hull House met.


The Hull House complex was featured in the August, 1905 issue of The Architectural Record with two photos focusing on the 1904 Women's Club building and 1899 coffee house and auditorium. A smaller one-story building appears to the west. The Women's Club is described as composed of "cherry red pavers, trimmed with purplish brown pavers, Bedford limestone" while the Coffee House is "purple-red body, light brown trim, laid in grey mortar."44

It is likely that the Music School building south of the Boiler House was added in 1905, despite its appearance in the plan included in the 1904 Hull House Annual Report. This is based on a March 1905 building permit for a 2-story brick addition with dimensions that match the Music School.45 In June of 1905 Hull House received a permit for a single-story brick addition to their main property featuring the same contractor.46 This project may be the new entrance, which replaced the original front doors of the Hull House with shallow-flanged arches in keeping with the overall design.

The new entrance, which repeats the Arts and Crafts style of the various settlement buildings, using heavy brick piers, shallow flanged arches and windows divided into geometric panes, usually centered on a diamond shape in the upper sash. The new entrance provided a wide lobby and separate access to the original mansion, the coffee house and auditorium, and the Children's Building. It is likely that the two-story verandah attached to the Children's Building was reduced to one story in conjunction with the new entrance, which was set beneath the verandah, which acted as a sort of awning or marquee and which was ornamented with a stone lintel inscribed "Hull House."47 Composed of shallow arches, brickwork and the distinctive diamond-paned windows found in many other Hull House buildings, the new main entrance of Hull House evoked the evolved architectural aesthetic of the whole complex. Pond & Pond continued the simplified English Arts & crafts vocabulary and "honest" material expression of brick that had defined their earlier work at Hull House.


By 1906 a children's playground had been completed west of the Jane Club and a 3-story nursery building was planned along the perpendicular alley.48 The key development this year was the donation by Helen Culver of all of the land on which Hull House buildings had been built as well as an adjacent lot on Polk Street to the west for the new Boys' Club and a $50,000 endowment.49 The 4-story Boys' Club, at 246 Polk Street featured a play room, game room and lockers on the first floor; classrooms, library, living room and kitchen on the second floor; eleven bedrooms on the third floor and four additional bedrooms, two living rooms, a dining room and kitchen on the fourth floor.50 A building permit was issued for the building in May, and its cost was again underwritten by Mrs. Bowen.51 The Boy's Club was dedicated on January 12, 1907. 1906 also saw the completion of improvements to the theatre space above the coffee house. An organ had been added to the balcony in 1905 and a new inclined floor and seating was added in 1906 creating a more "professional" theater space. The final important development of 1906 was the expiration of the lease on the mattress factory north of the Jane Club, allowing the development of a new, expanded nursery and Children's facility.


The drawings for the Crane Nursery likely date from 1906, and the building was completed during the summer of 1907.52 One of the largest blocks in the complex, the building was, like the adjacent Jane Club, related to Hull House but independently funded and constructed by the Crane family, although the architects were again Pond & Pond. Rising west and north of the Jane Club, the 4-story building was designed with numerous nurseries, kitchens, and room for staff.53 The 2-story Dining Hall was added atop the boiler house at this point, despite its common date of 1905.54 The final building to complete the interior courtyard, the Dining Hall featured a row of three gables facing the courtyard and a stuccoed second story, the only use by Pond & Pond of this particular finish in the complex. There was a rebuilding of the Boiler House in February of 1907 in preparation for the addition of the dining room.55 Also in conjunction with the construction of the new residents' Dining Hall, a third floor was added to the Music Studio during the summer, to line up with the music studios and classrooms on the second floor of the Dining Hall.56 The old residents' dining hall in the narrow wing running west of the mansion proper, was converted during this time, causing Jane Addams to write her sister that "the entire plantation is upset but these are necessary changes to the old house."57 The Hull House Settlement was in its final flurry of initial construction. A few more projects, including wings on the Crane Nursery, would be added over the next five years, but in essence, the Hull House complex that was demolished in 1963 was largely complete by the end of 1907.


The second story of the octagonal bay on the south side of the mansion, along with a small connecting porch identified as "Miss Addams' porch" was constructed by 1910.58


In 1911 a 2-story brick storage building was constructed along the alley behind the Jane Club. This modest 26'x16'x16' building designed to store oil and paint and would eventually be engulfed by rear additions to the Jane Club and adjacent Crane Nursery.59


In 1913 the Jane Club and Crane Nursery were linked with a 4-story porch addition that provided verandahs and a staircase.60 The substantial construction linked these two Hull House "associate" properties and helped frame the forecourt along Ewing Street.

By 1913 the complex is complete save for the later addition to the Crane Nursery and additional rooftop structures. The nursery also had a pergola on the roof for treating tuberculosis. A second-story bridge from the kitchen behind the mansion across the alley to the shops complex had been built.


The drawings in the Jane Addams Memorial Collection indicate some alterations to the coffee house and auditorium building in 1917, but it is not clear what these are.

At some point a fifth story was added to the Boy's Club building, as well as a bridge leading across the alley from the Boys' Club Building to the Crane Nursery.61

Over the next 50 years little was added to the complex. The pergola atop the Crane Nursery survived, somewhat enclosed, until the demolition in 1963.62 The Children's Building was renamed the Smith Building and the Women's Club auditorium was renamed Bowen Hall.63

c. 1950

A series of undated plans show the following uses sometime in mid-century:

The mansion remains a reception area with the octagonal bay to the south serving as an office. The second floor contains four more offices, a green room and guest room, including a rectangular rear addition that runs back to the alley perpendicular to Halsted. The top floor of the mansion remains the women's residences.

The Butler Building has an art gallery on the main floor, with the men's residence on the upper two floors. The Men's residence building immediately to the south of the Butler Building houses the General Office of the Juvenile Protection Association with the next two floors part of the Men's Residence and the top floor an apartment.

The 1899 auditorium and coffee house building immediately north of the Children's Building remains a cafeteria and kitchen on the ground floor with roughly the same interior wall divisions as the time of construction; an auditorium above; and a stage loft and gallery flanking the uppermost portion of the auditorium corresponding to the third floor. The kitchen structure remains one story high.

The southern courtyard entrance on Halsted joins the Men's Residence to the Apartment Building along Cabrini (Ewing) Street, which consists as it did in 1915-20 of a three-story building running from Halsted to the alley perpendicular to Halsted, consisting of two structures at either corner adjacent to the property line and a section joining slightly setback from Cabrini Street.

Set atop the boiler room and its terrace, which extends into the courtyard, is the1907 Dining Hall with a dining room at one half-level above the main level. The second floor of this building contains the music school and a series of 4 small "music rooms." The Music Building is immediately to the south with a music room on the main level with an apartment on the second and third floors.

The Jane Club and Mary Crane Nursery retain their footprints, but no uses are shown on the main floor. The second floor of the Jane Club has three club rooms, a kitchen and office with a separate carpenter's shop to the rear of the club, set a half level above grade at the intersection of the alleys. The third and fourth floors have residence rooms.

The Mary Crane Nursery indicates five nursery rooms and an office on the second floor, with three of the nurseries in the original building and two in the wing added c. 1915-20 at the west end. The third floor shows three more nurseries, a kitchen, dining area, store and larder. The fourth floor consists of three apartments. The multi-story porch adjacent to the nursery building's intersection with the Jane Club is shown.

The 1893 Gymnasium shows three rooms with no uses indicated on the main floor, which had long served as the shops and textile museum. The second floor has a large game room surrounded by shower and toilet facilities to the south and smaller game rooms to the north. The third floor is the gymnasium occupying the entire floor.

Immediately to the west, the 1904 Women's Club indicates a large unmarked main floor, an audiutorium at one-half level above grade and an upper portion of the auditorium showing a gallery and proscenium and stage. To the west of that, the 1906 Boy's Club building has an eastern corridor and three unmarked rooms on the main floor. The second floor contains a large club room for older boys and smaller club room for younger boys on with toilets and storerooms, and a dining room, sewing room, kitchen and three conference rooms on the third floor. The fourth and fifth floors show apartments. The 1905 Music Studio and 1907 Dining Hall completed the courtyard in the rear of the Hull mansion.

Planning the Chicago Branch of University of Illinois -- 1954-63

Planning for a new Chicago campus to replace the overcrowded and inefficient facilities at Navy Pier began as early as 1954, only 8 years after the opening of the Navy Pier campus. The Branch Commission made a report to the Illinois General Assembly in February, 1955, and by June 1956 had identified the optimal site for the campus -- the Miller Meadow of the Cook County Forest Preserve District, in suburban Forest Park near the intersection of Roosevelt Road and the DesPlaines River.64 This report included a lengthy list of reasons that the campus should not be located on a downtown site, including lack of parking; removal of land from tax rolls, congestion, need for low buildings, relocation costs, inability to expand, poor student environment, slow travel, and high cost. Estimates suggested that the Miller Meadow site could be acquired for only $4 million as opposed to $22 million for the downtown site.65 Despite this strong recommendation, by 1958 the University was still looking at both Miller Meadow and a downtown site south of the Loop bounded by the Chicago River, State Street, Congress Parkway and 16th Street.66

In 1959 Mayor Richard J. Daley proposed the Harrison-Halsted site for the campus.67 The neighborhood had many of the same disadvantages as other downtown sites -- it was only 55 acres with limited expansion room, it would remove properties from the tax rolls, and could be considered a poor student environment with little parking and congestion. But it had already been declared "slum and blighted" under Urban Renewal guidelines and thus the land could be delivered at a very low cost. Florence Scala led a community effort to preserve the area, but found little support outside of the community. The University requested an appropriation of $45.35 million in 1961 to pay for the construction of the campus, by which time the decision to restore the original Hull House had been made.68

It is a criticism of settlement houses that they imposed bourgeois values on immigrant communities who might well have formed their own associations for improvement following an internal model. Yet the approach of settlement house workers to their community -- to live there and interact with people at all times, remains in strong contrast to the University's approach. Gerald Suttles noted that the University's first official acknowledgement of its surrounding community "was to assure the city that sufficient walls and fences would be built to keep out 'undesirables'."69

The University pledged to remain true to "the spirit" of Jane Addams but was clearly interested in consigning both the Hull House and the tradition of neighborhood interaction to the past by memorializing it in the Hull House museum. 1960s historic preservation practice underscored and supported this mission of modernization.

It is clear from a cursory review of University archives that the University did not initially intend to preserve Hull House. It is also clear from the aerial photos in the Chancellor's Records that the entire Hull House complex still stood while the rest of the land for the University was cleared by 1963.70 The construction of the University and the restoration of Hull House took place over the next two years, with the University opening in 1965. Architectural Forum magazine celebrated the new campus with a lengthy article in the September 1965 issue. The author attributed the preservation of Hull House to the Florence Scala-led effort to save the neighborhood, which had brought the redevelopment before the Supreme Court, which issued a decision in December 1960, allowing the University to proceed. The final master plan was in place by the following December. According to the Architectural Forum article:

The results of the litigation were the preservation of Hull House (right), which pops up at the east edge of the site, as a gesture to the losing side, and a substantial delay in the university's timetable.

An August 1963 article in Architectural Record featuring a detailed model of the proposed campus does not show Hull House. Yet by this date, the decision to restore the house had been made, for the New York Times reported it on July 21, 1963, and UIC Chancellor Currie referenced the restoration in a speech on August 5, where he said: "Guided by old photographs and by a painting made that same year (1889), the exterior of the house will be faithfully restored as accurately as can be determined."

It is clear that the University initially intended no restoration, and even after the decision to save the original Hull Mansion was made, it apparently required additional lobbying to preserve the Pond & Pond dining room. Indeed, a UPI wire story filed on September 14, 1961 referenced "University plans" to restore "only the original portion" of the Hull House complex as "a monument in front of the student union building."71

Moreover, the University and State of Illinois did not fund the restoration. The $350,000 was raised privately in an effort led by Museum of Science and Industry Director Lenox Lohr and United States Senator Paul Douglas, who had been a resident at Hull House during his days as a student at the University of Chicago.

Curiosities of the 1963-67 reconstruction

The current "restored" state of Hull House was purportedly based on a Carl Linden painting completed in 1896 and possibly supplemented by suggestions from early residents, and historic photos of the interior. The exterior restoration in many respects follows the painting, which illustrates the house as it appeared in its earliest years, prior to the Civil War. Yet photos from the first few years of the Hull House settlement house contradict several features of the house as it has appeared since 1963. The house may never have sported the rooftop cupola now "restored," and the building roofline was in fact a cross gable of two shallow-pitched roofs and not the pyramidal hipped roof built in 1963. Even Allen B. Pond, who with brother Irving served as architects for Hull House for two decades, recalled the roof in 1902 as "low-gabled."72 The protruding polygonal bay on the north side of the house also went unnoticed and was not reconstructed in 1963.73

The Hull House mansion was restored to a condition inconsistent with photographic and documentary evidence. To the contrary, it is clear from various photos of the 1890-94 period that the mansion in fact had a low-pitched cross-gable roof and projecting polygonal bays on both the north and south sides. This is what Allen Pond described in 1902. The cross-gable is a typical Italianate stylistic feature, especially representative of the 1850s. The use of the hipped roof on the cubic Italianate style was not predominant until the 1870s. It is also not possible to verify whether the verandah extended around the entire exterior, a feature common in antebellum Italianate homes in the southern United States but rare in the north. Moreover, given the dense development of the block even in 1889, it would seem that the verandah may only have stretched the width of the front façade.

There is also the question of the cupola. While it may have existed in 1856, it would be more appropriate to a hipped-roof structure and it in any case did not exist in 1890 and is not referenced by Addams or others during their residency. The key piece of evidence used by Dean Leonard Currie, who personally worked on the restoration of Hull Mansion with the architects Frazier, Slattery, Orr & Fairbank, was the Carl Linden painting of Hull House imagined at the time of its construction.

The painting was much commented on during the 1906-07 New Years' celebration at Hull House, when Lindin's painting, "from a general description given him by Miss Helen Culver" was discussed by the older residents, and "minor corrections were made."74 It is unclear, although unlikely, that these corrections were in fact painted on to the decade-old painting during a New Years' party. The painting was painted in 1896 by Lindin, a resident, and donated to Hull House in 1899.75 It hung in the building and probably helped form residents' ideas of its original appearance.

The restoration plan was initially focused on the Hull Mansion, and all subsequent press releases used the term "Hull Mansion" and focused on the associational significance of Jane Addams in the restoration plan, as opposed to any architectural significance in regard to Pond & Pond.76 Senator Paul Douglas, a former resident, pushed for restoration, and a separate foundation was established to raise the $350,000 needed for the project, administered by former Museum of Science and Industry Director Lenox Lohr and sponsored by the University of Illinois Foundation. The thought -- paralleling similar thinking in regard to urban renewal at the time -- was that University funds could not be used for the non-educational purpose of restoring a "museum," just as urban renewal funds could only be used for new construction and not for rehabilitation. The focus was primarily on Jane Addams and secondarily on the fact that Hull Mansion -- as an 1856 Italianate house, would be a rare "survivor" of pre-Fire Chicago, as revealed in a fundraising letter by Mrs. Norman Parker:

"The great public interest in restoring Hull Mansion was a determining factor in the decision of the Board of Trustees to adopt plans for the project and seek gift funds for that purpose. Truly a shrine to humanitarian service in meeting the needs of man -- a symbol to the world, Hull Mansion will take its rightful place as an historic landmark to be viewed by many who owe their better way of life to its founder."77

By mid-1964 the Jane Addams Memorial Fund had raised $200,000 and contracts had been awarded by the University for the restoration of both the mansion and the dining hall, the restoration of a metal roof, the erection of a covered walkway connecting the two buildings, plumbing, heating and wiring.78 Interior finishes awaited a later stage of fundraising. The architectural decisions were not those of the architects alone, for School of Architecture Dean Leonard Currie was made a consultant to the architects in March of 1963, and it was he who made all public pronouncements on the project.79

Historic Preservation in Chicago in the 1960s was very much focused on masterpieces of what was known as "The Chicago School of Architecture," buildings and architects considered the progenitors of architectural modernism as embodied in the new steel-and-glass skyscrapers of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. While some members of the Chicago Heritage Committee favored the restoration of Hull House, the fact that its primary significance was historical limited the involvement of the preservation community, as illustrated by Daniel Bluestone.80 The fact that what was saved involved no re-siting of the existing campus plan -- conceived without any Hull House preservation -- was typical of the period, where preservationists revered new modernism almost as much as they cherished earlier architectural landmarks.81

The restoration philosophy of the architects, the Geneva firm of Frazier, Raftery, Orr and Fairbank was not unusual for the time. Historic preservation in 1963 was guided by architects who felt that original designs -- even those that had been lost during the time when a building "became famous" were of utmost significance. The fact that Hull House was built before the Great Chicago Fire also figured in -- it was to be preserved as a pre-Fire building, so therefore it should look like a pre-Fire Italianate mansion, not a settlement house.

The restoration of the Dining Hall presents several curiosities. First, why was it chosen rather than one of the more visually representative buildings, such as the Apartment Building or Children's Building? This decision seems to be a result of cost, siting, re-use and convenience. The Children's (Smith) Building would have blocked access to the student union, and it is important to recall that the University's initial design anticipated no Hull House preservation. The fact that the mansion and Dining Hall are literally inches from the student union is visual evidence that the University was planned first, to the exclusion of Hull House. The Apartment Building and the Children's Building were too large -- not only for budgeting a restoration, but also for finding a new use that conformed to the "museum" mission defined for the Hull House Memorial. An actual University use, given the social and architectural climate of 1963, was probably never even considered. Finally, the fact that the Dining Room had been built atop an existing structure meant that it was easier to disengage from its foundations -- it was already raised off the ground.

A more intriguing question is raised by the Butler Building. It was not "in the way" of any planned University Buildings, and it was relatively small -- three stories high but not much larger than the Dining Hall, and it could have been restored in place. There are probably two reasons that it was not. First, it would have blocked views of the Hull Mansion, and 1960s architectural preservation privileged the visual -- and often demolished historic buildings to create a better "setting" for the privileged monument -- just as the blocks had been cleared in front of Notre Dame de Paris. Secondly, a photograph of the interior of the Dining Hall -- showing Jane Addams and notable residents at supper -- had captured the imagination of the planners and/or architects. They could place Jane Addams in this building on a daily basis, so like the house, it was of primary importance.

It is clear from historic photos and those from the University at the time of demolition that the second floor of the Dining Hall, which housed the music school in part, had an exterior render of stucco, while the first floor was exposed brick. The final reconstruction was entirely in brick. It is tempting to speculate that the restoration architects were motivated by the generally accepted "masterpiece theory" of architectural preservation and sought to make the Dining Hall more representative of Pond & Pond's architectural work at Hull House. Ultimately, it was their largest commission, and nearly every other building featured a brick exterior. Moreover, the Chicago School "story" privileged the expressive use of structural materials in their natural state as advocated by Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright. The render could easily have been read in 1963 as an unnatural attempt to "mask" the honest structure of the building.

Photographs in the University Archives document the moving of the structure from its original location atop the boiler house.82 Since the building had no eastern (originally southern) façade where it adjoined the earlier Music School and Studio building, the current eastern façade is entirely new, and a setback reveals this visually. Its reorientation to a position perpendicular to its original appears to be an attempt to recreate the sense of the "courtyard" that it originally faced. The overall philosophy of the "restoration" was to memorialize Jane Addams and the idea of Hull House, rather than create a physical sense of the Hull House complex. In a sense, the memorialization of Jane Addams had already occurred within Hull House, not only in her octagonal office, maintained as a shrine to her memory, but in the fact that the settlement, and its physical plant, remained essentially unchanged through the three decades following Jane Addams' death.

In the mid-1960s, restoration was not viewed with the sort of archaeological reverence that an architect or historian would have today. The reason for the exterior finish of the Dining Hall as well as Hull House is revealed in a 1964 press release:

"Both buildings will be brick veneered, appropriate in color and character to the original Hull House. The mansion will have new windows and exterior doors and the existing third floor roof will be removed and replaced with a new hipped roof with cupola on it as it was originally built."83

Thus, none of the visible elements of the exterior of Hull House are composed of materials original to the structure. The Dining Hall has been "slipcovered" like so many 1960s storefronts and thus bears little resemblance to its original appearance, to say nothing of its original fabric. As surprising as this "encasing" seems to us today, it was not uncommon in the 1960s. The Old State Capitol was taken down, a new steel structure erected and the original limestone blocks were cut down from 2 feet in thickness to 9 inches and re-erected on a new structure.84 The firm of Frazier, Slattery, Orr & Fairbank, also apparently applied this "slipcover" technique to other properties it worked on.85 Only the interiors present anything resembling what is now considered historic integrity, and this is somehow appropriate, since it was interior photographs that guided much of the restoration and an interior of the Dining Hall that helped inspire the restoration of that structure.

1Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, 1889, reel 2. See especially Ellen Gates Starr's letter to her parents November 24, 1889 and Jane Addams letter to her sister Sarah Alice Addams Haldeman of October 8, 1889.

2The Irving Pond description is recounted in several sources, including Jane Addams' Hull House and Dining Hall, Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 1974. A photo made shortly after the construction of the Butler Building to two stories, about 1890-91 shows the verandah as described. Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, 1889, reel 2 indicates that repairs and re-roofing of the veranda was probably undertaken in the fall of 1889, and it is possible but not attested that the porch was reduced in size at that time.

3Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, 1889, reel 2. Letters to landlord Helen Culver from Jane Addams in March 1890. Through the early years Addams struggles to get Culver to donate rent and eventually more buildings, finally convincing her after several years to offer some of the lots on the block for sale. See especially letter from Jane Addams to "Dearest" (Mary Rozet Smith) March 23, 1898, JAMC reel 2.

4Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, 1889, reel 2. Letters to landlord Helen Culver from Jane Addams in March 1890.

5JAMC neg. 529 and the image of the "Hull-House with Reading Room and Studio Building" from Jane Addams, "Outline Sketch Descriptive of Hull-House," Hull-House Maps and Papers (NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1895) show the Butler building at 2 stories and a 1-story frame Livery building on the corner.

6The image of the "Coffee House and Gymnasium Building" from Jane Addams, "Outline Sketch Descriptive of Hull-House," Hull-House Maps and Papers (NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1895) shows this building with the mansion still at 2 stories. A ventilation plan for the building -- no date -- exists in Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum 10-003 by Pond & Pond with their address given as 6 N. Michigan Avenue. Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2 contains a March 20, 1894 letter from Jane Addams to Mrs. Joseph Medill acknowledging that she gave the first ten dollars toward the coffeehouse and requesting $200 for a Middlebury baking over, suggesting that the coffee house was in place by the beginning of 1894.

7See Wright's Smith House in Oak Park (1896) or Chauncey Williams House in River Forest (1893).

8Inland Architect and Building News (July 1893). Building Permit 4339, dated November 26, 1892 for a 2-story gymnasium building 40x120x20 granted to James Adams [sic], Building Permit Records, City of Chicago, reel 9.

9Building Permit 1128, dated May 27, 1893 for a 1-story brick boiler house 32'x42'x10'granted to Hull House Trustees, Building Permit Records, City of Chicago, reel 10.

10The image of the "Coffee House and Gymnasium Building" from Jane Addams, "Outline Sketch Descriptive of Hull-House," Hull-House Maps and Papers (NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1895).

11Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2, letter from Jane Addams to Mary Rozet Smith, January 15, 1895. A further letter to the same from February 16, 1895 states "The third floor is going on fact – if continued mild weather, roofed in two weeks." The image of Hull-House in Dorothea Moore, "A Day at Hull House," The American Journal of Sociology (March 1897): 628 shows the third story on the mansion. Building Permit 54, dated February 2, 1895 for a 1-story brick additional 40'x44'x18/38'granted to Miss Jane Addams, Building Permit Records, City of Chicago, reel 10.

12Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2, letter from Jane Addams to Mary Rozet Smith, January 15, 1895.

13Building Permit SW814, dated July 16, 1895 for a 4-story brick "Children's Building" 44'x44'x44'granted to Hull House Trustees, Building Permit Records, City of Chicago, reel 11. The drawings can be found in the Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum 10-003. Pond & Pond have an address of 34 Washington Street on these drawings.

14"New Hull House Annex: Building for Children to Go Up at Polk and Halsted Streets," Chicago Times Herald (July 19, 1895): 10.

15Jane Addams Memorial Collection, Addendum, reel 10, Hull House Plans; Plan of Children's Building dated July 30, 1895.

16Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2, letter from Jane Addams to her sister, August 8, 1895, and letter from Jane Addams to Mary Rozet Smith, August 19, 1895. The latter letter references the third floor construction while the former discusses the pillars and a variety of construction details, from stairs to bookcases and speaking tubes. See the image of Hull-House in Dorothea Moore, "A Day at Hull House," The American Journal of Sociology (March 1897): 628 for a view of the porch.

17Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2, letter from Jane Addams to Mary Rozet Smith, September 4, 1895.

18Building Permit SW411, dated April 23, 1896 for a 1-story addition 30'x40'x8' granted to Hull House Trustees, Building Permit Records, City of Chicago, reel 11. The new addition appeared in photographs printed in 1898 in Florence Kelley's "Hull House" in New England Magazine.

19JAMC neg. 150 shows the Italianate building south of the Butler Building and the courtyard in 1898.

20JAMC neg. 899.

21Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2, letter from Jane Addams to Mary Rozet Smith, March 23, 1898.

22Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2, letter from Jane Addams to Mary Rozet Smith, March 23, 1898. An April 4, 1898 letter between the same correspondents discusses building where the "little cottage west of the old nursery stands". The cottage appears in early images of the Jane Club -- see the image captioned "Attractive Home of the Jane Club of Working Girls" in "New Buildings at Hull House," The Commons: A Monthly Record Devoted to Aspects of Life and Labor from the Settlement Point of View 38 (September 1899): 7. The story-and-one-half nursery building which had been rented prior to 1895 stood at 223 West Ewing Street.

23Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2, letter from Jane Addams to Mary Rozet Smith, April 4, 1898

24Alzina Parsons Stevens, "Life in a Social Settlement -- Hull-House, Chicago," Self Culture 9, no. 1 (March 1899): 44. Stevens was the HH resident who was assistant factory inspector under Florence Kelley.

25Jane Addams Memorial Collection correspondence, reel 2, letter from Jane Addams to Mary Rozet Smith, March 23, 1898 Addams is also in these letters soliciting Smith and her family to underwrite these efforts to acquire land and develop buildings. Mrs. Wilmarth and Sidney Kent are also mentioned as possible donors. The Building Permit for the Jane Club is dated August 1, 1898 and lists it as a 3-story brick structure, reflecting the conceit of the ground-level "English Basement" that was not considered a full floor even though the ground floor rested on grade. Building Permit SW405, August 1, 1898 for a 3-story brick "Club House" 26'x70'x40'granted to Hull House, Building Permit Records, City of Chicago, reel 12. The drawings are found in Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum 10-003. Pond & Pond now give an address of 109-21 West Van Buren Street.

26The image captioned "Attractive Home of the Jane Club of Working Girls" in "New Buildings at Hull House," The Commons: A Monthly Record Devoted to Aspects of Life and Labor from the Settlement Point of View 38 (September 1899): 7 is a rendering of the Jane Club showing the house to the west.

27Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum 10-003.

28The image captioned "Auditorium and Coffee House at Hull House" from "New Buildings at Hull House," The Commons: A Monthly Record Devoted to Aspects of Life and Labor from the Settlement Point of View 38 (September 1899): 7.

29Inland Architect and Building News (January 1900). Two dark photographs illustrate the complex, one from the south along Halsted, and the other from the west along Polk. There are also four interior photos of the coffee room, auditorium, lecture room and living room.

30This rendering is Chicago Historical Society ICHi-17829, published in "A Vision of Urban Social Reform" by Ellen Christensen, Chicago History (March 1993). The drawing also shows portions of the three story buildings immediately south of the Butler Building on Halsted and west of the gymnasium building on Polk. This was later published in the Inland Architect and Building News as detailed below.

31The photo in the January 1900 issue of Inland Architect is indistinct, but it seems to show the new coffee house adjacent to the older gymnasium and coffee house, without the introduction of an alley or the addition of stories on top of the older building.

32Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum 10-001 Plat of Survey dated October 15, 1900.

33Chicago Architectural Club Annual Exhibition Catalog, Art Institute of Chicago (1900): 66-67.

34"New Buildings," Hull House Bulletin 5, no. 1 (1902): 18.

35Building Permit SW409 dated May 29, 1901 for a 1-story brick addition and new front to the dimensions 40'x106'x16' at 240-42 W. Polk Street (815-17 W. Polk), Building Permit Records, City of Chicago, reel 12.

36"New Buildings," Hull House Bulletin 5, no. 1 (1902): 18. Building Permit SW909 dated November 19, 1901 granted to Hull House Association for a 3-story brick apartments building 106'x44'x irregular, costing $25,000. A curiosity of the 1901 permits is that Hull House Association was listed as EXEMPT from building permit fees, a condition that was not true in the 1890s nor again after 1904.

37Building Permit SW2164 dated June 6, 1902 to the Hull House Association for a rear lot 1-story brick building 50'x59'x14'. City of Chicago Building Permit Records.

38Building Permit 13916 dated August 4, 1904 to the Hull House Association for a 1-story brick Club House 42'x106'x42' costing $18,000. As noted above, the Association was no longer consided exempt and paid an $1870 building permit fee.

39Hull House plan of 1904, Jane Addams Memorial Collection, UIC Special Collections.

40Hull House plan of 1904, Jane Addams Memorial Collection, UIC Special Collections.

41The two-story Music School building appears in the Hull House plan of 1904, Jane Addams Memorial Collection, UIC Special Collections, although there is no building permit from this year and no record of this building until 1905, as detailed below. It was not uncommon for the Building Plans in the Hull House annual report to show prospective work, e.g., the 1905-06 plan showed the "proposed" Crane nursery building, constructed the following year.

42The two-story addition atop the boiler house appears to be the Pond & Pond dining room and music school restored in 1963, which is usually dated 1905, but it does not appear on the Hull House plans of 1904 or 1905-06. It appears on the 1913 plan, Jane Addams Memorial Collection, UIC Special Collections.

43Hull House plan of 1904, Jane Addams Memorial Collection, UIC Special Collections.

44Architectural Record (August 1905): 146. See also letters from Louis DeKoven Bowen to Jane Addams in May and June of 1905 detailing her outlay of some $26,000 for the Women's Club project.

45Building Permit 16778 dated March 13, 1905 to Hull House for a 2-story brick addition costing $4500. City of Chicago Building Permit Records. While the permit gives no dimensions, The Economist magazine of March 18, 1905 lists the permit as a 2-story addition "in rear" and gives dimensions 29'x33' -- that correspond to the Music School footprint.

46Building Permit 18958 dated June 5, 1905 to Hull House for a 1-story brick addition costing $1500. City of Chicago Building Permit Records.

47Jane Addams' 1910 book, Twenty Years at Hull House contains at least two illustrations of the one-story verandah.

48Hull House plan of 1905-06, Jane Addams Memorial Collection, UIC Special Collections. This plot of land west of the Jane Club was identified as an athletic field in the 1904 plan.

49Peggy Glowacki, "Helen Culver," in Women Building Chicago 1790-1990: A Biographical Dictionary, ed. Rima Lunin Schultz and Adele Hast (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2001): 202-5.


51Building Permit 27071 dated May 26, 1906 issued to Hull House for a 4-story brick "side addition" 43'x106'x54' on West Polk Street costing $40,000. Building Permit Records, City of Chicago, reel 13. The support of Mrs. Bowen is chronicled in "Boys' Building for Hull House Dedicated," in Charities and the Commons 17 (1907): 694-95. Which indicates that the building cost $50,000 and Mrs. Bowen contributed a further $15,000 for furnishings and equipment, while Miss Culver provided an endowment of $50,000 and had the "Culver Club" on the third and fourth floors named for her. Building plans are located in Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum 10-003.

52Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum 10-003. A building permit SW6510 was issued to R.T. Crane on May 24, 1907 for a 4-story brick creche designed by Pond & Pond with dimensions of 70'x44'x44'. The identical information was reported in the June 1, 1907 edition of The Economist.

53See plan in the Hull House Annual Report of 1913.

54The drawings in Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum 10-003 include Boiler House alterations dated February 13, 1907.

55Jane Addams Memorial Collection Addendum, reel 10 has drawings for the Boiler House by Pond & Pond dated February 13, 1907.

56Building Permit 8276 dated July 26, 1907 to Hull House for a 1-story brick addition 34'x29' costing $2000. The contractors were Woful and Deuchler, the same firm constructing the Dining Hall, and the architects were again Pond & Pond. City of Chicago Building Permit Records.

57Letter from Jane Addams to Sarah Alice Addams Haldeman, August 27, 1907, Jane Addams Memorial Collection, reel 5-0211.

58JAMC undated photos (negs. 3413 and 1966) illustrate the bay at one story, while the American Magazine article of 1910 illustrates the second story of the bay and the connecting porch.

59Building Permit SW 32718 dated August 31, 1911 to J. A. Adams for a 2-story brick storage building costing $1500.

60Building Permit SW 10093 dated December 26, 1912 to Hull House for a 2/4-story brick side additions 12'x40'x40' costing $11,000.

61Wallace Kirkland photo of the building c. 1940-50, JAMC neg. 532.

62University Archives photo 90-999-444 show demolition of the Crane Nursery and the pergola in place.

63Hull House plan of 1963, Jane Addams Memorial Collection, UIC Special Collections.

64Folders 1-6, Chancellor's files, Box 1, University of Illinois at Chicago Special Collections.

65Physical Planning files, Chancellor's files, Box 6, Folder 37, University of Illinois at Chicago Special Collections.

66Planning Policies and Procedures document dated February 4, 1958, Chancellor's files, Box 6, Folder 39, University of Illinois at Chicago Special Collections.

67AIA Guide to Chicago (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993): 285.

68Bill in the General Assembly, Chancellor's files, Box 1, Folder 5, University of Illinois at Chicago Special Collections.

69Gerald Suttles, The Social Order of the Slum (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968): 22.

70Hull House Neighborhood Papers, Box 6, 2000-31, Chicago Aerial Survey photos, Folder 2.

71UPI press release wire story by Fred Mohn, in Chancellor's files, Box 6, Folder 40, University of Illinois at Chicago Special Collections.

72Allen B. Pond, "The Settlement House" Part III, The Brickbuilder 11, no.9 (September 1902). See also the photo of Hull House shortly after the 1890 construction of the Butler Building (JAMC neg. 146) to see the porch present only on the front elevation.

73The image captioned "Coffee House and Gymnasium Building" from Jane Addams, "Outline Sketch Descriptive of Hull-House," Hull-House Maps and Papers (NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1895) shows the building from the north behind the 1894 coffee house and gymnasium. While it is possible that the northern bay was not present in 1856, it matches the round-arched window detailing of the original house, making it unlikely as a later addition.

74Hull House Year Book (September 1, 1906-September 1, 1907).

75 Jane Addams Memorial Collection reel 3-1318 is a letter from Jane Addams to Carl Linden thanking him for his generous gift and effusing that "we all care for the picture a great deal and it will be a source of unending pleasure and satisfaction". Linden responded with the information that the picture was painted three years earlier and crediting a Mr. White for the donation.

76University of Illinois at Chicago Archives, Office of Public Affairs UA-75-9, Box 3 has numerous press releases and press clipping regarding the restoration plan.

77Ibid. Fundraising letter of Mrs. Norman Parker, President, Faculty Women's Club, March 2, 1964.

78Ibid. See especially press release dated August 12, 1964.

79Ibid. See letter from Norman Parker to UIC President Henry, March 22, 1963.

80See Daniel Bluestone, "Preservation and Renewal in Post-World War II Chicago," Journal of Architectural Education (May 1994): 220-221.


82University Archives photos UA90-999-439, UA90-999-438, UA90-999-433 show the moving of the Dining Room/Music school building and the condition of the original mansion prior to restoration.

83University of Illinois at Chicago Archives, Office of Public Affairs UA-75-9, Box 3, press release dated August 12, 1964.

84See James Marston Fitch, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World (Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia, 1990): 147-154.

85Conversation with Gerald Adelmann, Former Advisor to the National Trust for Historic Preservation, April 25, 2003.