How Women Financed Hull-House
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Sharon Z. Alter, "Louise deKoven Bowen," in Women Building Chicago 1790-1990: A Biographical Dictionary, ed. Rima Lunin Schultz and Adele Hast (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2001): 101-6.
BOWEN, LOUISE deKOVEN
February 26, 1859-November 9, 1953
SOCIAL REFORMER, POLITICAL ACTIVIST, CLUBWOMAN
Louise deKoven Bowen, a wealthy Chicago socialite, represented the epitome of noblesse oblige and the exercise of power for the benefit of the larger community. Her longtime positions as president of the Juvenile Protective Association and treasurer of Hull-House had a significant impact both on these organizations and on the history of Chicago. Bowen's tenure as president of the Woman's City Club coupled with her activism for woman suffrage and municipal reform demonstrated her ability to use her influence to merge issues in both partisan and nonpartisan ways. Bowen's appointment to mobilize the war effort during World War I reflected a recognition of her elite status, her organizational skills in philanthropic work, and her wide network of women activists. Throughout her long career of public service and activism, Bowen's uppermost goals were the welfare and betterment of women, children, and their families.
The granddaughter of Fort Dearborn pioneers, deKoven was the only child of John and Helen (Hadduck) deKoven. Her large inheritance "derived from her maternal grandfather, who built a large fortune from real estate that later became the heart of Chicago's ... [downtown]" (Sklar, 107). At the age of sixteen, having been one of twelve honors graduates of Dearborn Seminary, deKoven refused the opportunity to present her graduation speech because her father thought that making such a speech in a crowded church would appear "unwomanly" (Bowen, Growing Up with a City, 18). Upon graduating, deKoven embarked on church work as an acceptable outlet for her interest in community service. She taught a Sunday school class of boys in need of guidance and direction. During the eleven years she taught at St. James Episcopal Church, she visited the boys' families, talked with them about their circumstances, and through her network of friends, assisted the boys in finding jobs. Realizing the need for recreational opportunities, deKoven at first invited the boys to her home to play billiards; but she later established and ran the first Chicago boys' club, the Huron Street Club. DeKoven continued this activity until the time constraints of marriage and motherhood prevailed.
Married at twenty-seven in 1886 to a prominent manufacturer and banker, Joseph Tilton Bowen, Louise deKoven Bowen had four children in the next six years: John deKoven Bowen in 1887; Joseph T. Bowen Jr. in 1888; Helen Hadduck Bowen in 1890; and Louise deKoven Bowen in 1892.
Mindful of her civic responsibilities, Bowen, while still a mother of young children, became board member and then president of Maurice Porter Memorial Hospital, later named Children's Memorial Hospital. She soon became vice-president of the Woman's Board of St. Luke's Hospital and then president of the Woman's Board of Passavant Hospital.
Bowen's long-term friendship with JANE ADDAMS and involvement with Hull-House originated when Addams invited her to join the newly formed Hull-House Woman's Club and to assist neighborhood women in using parliamentary procedures at club meetings. First Bowen had to learn parliamentary rules herself. She began her seventeen-year involvement with the club, eventually becoming secretary and then president. Bowen gained both public speaking expertise and an understanding of contemporary issues. With the expansion of membership, Bowen helped Addams and the Hull-House trustees fund a new building, Bowen Hall, to house an auditorium and library for use by the Hull-House Woman's Club. Bowen continued to forge connections between her elite social class and the poor of the Hull-House neighborhood, all the while developing as a person. Sharing Addams's vision of service and sense of social justice, Bowen became a major financial contributor to Hull-House and the primary solicitor of Hull-House funding. "Over a period of thirty-four years, between 1895 and 1928, Bowen contributed a total of $542,282, averaging $15,049 annually. No other donor came close to her record" (Sklar, 107). In 1911, as a memorial to her husband who died that year, Bowen gave the settlement seventy-two acres of land in Waukegan, Illinois, to establish the Joseph T. Bowen Country Club. In addition, she provided an endowment to maintain the site as a summer boys' camp for children from the Hull-House neighborhood.
Jane Addams spoke to the heart of the relationship between Bowen and her husband at the Bowen Country Club's opening. She recalled Joseph T. Bowen's "whole-hearted cooperation, to the last detail, in everything that came to Hull-House through his wife" (The Excellent Becomes the Permanent, 87). Years later, Bowen commented that her husband "was proud and sympathetic about everything I did" (Survey Midmonthly, April 1939, 106).
By the late 1890s, her involvement in Hull-House broadened both Bowen's concerns for children's welfare and her strong sense of social responsibility. Bowen brought her considerable energies and skills when she joined with other social and child welfare activists in developing a reform agenda for women and children's protection and betterment. By 1898, a coalition of county judges, the Chicago Bar Association, and women reformers including LUCY FLOWER, JULIA LATHROP, MARY BARTELME, and Louise deKoven Bowen successfully lobbied for a new juvenile court in Chicago – the first juvenile court in the United States. It opened in 1899 and handled delinquent children separately from adult criminals, though no provision had been made to pay probation officers. To meet this need and make certain the system did its job, the women reformers organized a Juvenile Court Committee (JCC) whose major initial goal was fund-raising for probation officers' salaries; Bowen first served as vice-chair, and by 1904 chaired the committee. Soon JCC extended its purpose to include finding suitable homes for dependent and delinquent children. Toward this end, Bowen led efforts to establish a Juvenile Court Building and Detention Home by obtaining commitments from the City of Chicago to provide the land and from the Cook County Board to provide funding for construction.
With the completion of this project, the JCC was "disbanded" in 1907 "but at the same time absorbed a small organ- [end page 101] [text continues on page 103] ization called the juvenile Protective Association, started by judge [Julian] Mack, Mr. Hastings Hart and Miss Minnie Lowe [sic]" (Growing Up with a City, 115) (see MINNIE LOW). Bowen became president of the Juvenile Protective Association (JPA). Following the approach of Hull-House Maps and Papers (1895), studies were published as inexpensive pamphlets widely distributed to social welfare activists, public officials, and the public-at-large. Bowen authored many of the studies and demonstrated an acute understanding and analysis of the need for both local and state government action and intervention to prevent juvenile delinquency.
The JPA studies identified aspects of urban life that had negative consequences for unprotected and unsupervised children whose family circumstances forced them into the city's streets and created an environment that promoted delinquency. Public dance halls and theaters were areas where liquor and prostitution flourished. Children were also at risk when they were employed in street peddling. Bowen led the campaign for laws to prohibit liquor sales in public dance halls and to regulate street peddling. In 1912, a city ordinance regulating peddling by boys and girls was passed during the administration of Mayor Carter H. Harrison Jr., who cooperated with Bowen and the JPA's reform agenda. When William "Big Bill" Thompson was elected mayor, the political climate for reform worsened. Political bossism, corruption, and the incompetence of Mayor Thompson's administration made adequate enforcement of the 1912 ordinance difficult. Bowen shifted from a private letter-writing campaign criticizing Thompson to public denunciation of the mayor. Later, using one of her pamphlets as campaign literature, Bowen was able to get a bill prohibiting liquor sales in public dance halls introduced and referred to a legislative committee in 1917.
Bowen was one of the first reformers in Chicago to become aware of the need for Chicago's African American community to have "an equal chance for work, for living accommodations, and for recreation" ("Annual Report," 1912-13, 48, JPA Records). In 1913 Bowen authored The Colored People of Chicago, one of the first social investigations into the social and economic conditions of Blacks in the city. Bowen concluded that Chicago's African American children's lives were "so circumscribed on every hand by race limitations" (Speeches, Addresses, and Letters, vol. 1, 275) that action was necessary against the deep-seated and extensive injustice first before the JPA could itself help the children. The JPA published the in-depth study of racial prejudice and discrimination in education, employment, housing, law enforcement, and entertainment as one of its pamphlets.
To fund JPA activities, Bowen contributed significant sums of her own money. In addition, because no one else would accept the responsibility, Bowen became the long-term chair of the organization's finance committee in 1910. In this capacity, she solicited corporate as well as individual contributions. Among the major individual benefactors were BERTHA PALMER, from Bowen's own elite circle, and Augusta Rosenwald, Julius Rosenwald's wife, from Bowen's elite and social welfare contacts. Nevertheless, Bowen was aware of the JPA's continual funding problems. In 1919, when the JPA executive director JESSIE BINFORD wanted the organization to do protective work with girls and not just with boys, Bowen knew that the association was already overextended financially because of child labor work assumed from the defunct Illinois Consumers' League. Facing a JPA budget of $27,000 and a deficit of $1,100 in October 1918, Bowen was rightly concerned. By 1929, when the budget was $40,000, Bowen resigned from the presidency because of the difficulties of funding a budget "about $12,000 more than I can raise and be moderately sure of (JPA Board "Minutes," October 11, 1929, JPA Records). Yet, within three months, Bowen was back as president with a presumably lowered budget.
Bowen was also involved with the woman suffrage movement. Her initial support for woman suffrage resulted from her sympathies for the ardent English suffragettes and their commitment rather than from Jane Addams's influence. Yet, once Bowen became a suffragist, she and Addams worked together organizationally, with Bowen as vice-president of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association, president of the Chicago Equal Suffrage Association, and auditor of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.
Supporting woman suffrage as a means of social reform and municipal and state housekeeping, Bowen argued that women were victims of taxation without representation. Refuting the ecclesiastical and physiological arguments of women's innate inferiority, Bowen proudly asserted women's equality with men in sharing civic responsibility. Bowen labeled as "manifestly absurd" (Speeches, Addresses, and Letters, vol. 1, 163) the domestic and social arguments that women, if given the vote, would precipitate marital discord and neglect of the family. Bowen further noted the inconsistency between praise by men for women as philanthropists and criticism of women when those same activities were no longer "considered philanthropy but politics" (Speeches, Addresses, and Letters, vol. 1, 163). In her argument in support of a federal amendment, Bowen noted that, with the opposition of the "liquor interests and disrespectable politicians who fear the moral influence of women at the polls," and "with so much money and organization opposing woman suffrage, it ... [is] almost impossible to get ... [woman suffrage] fairly before the voters" (Speeches, Addresses, and Letters, vol. 1, 478) on a state-by-state basis.
When, in 1912, the Republican Party refused to endorse woman suffrage and Theodore Roosevelt as the Progressive Party presidential candidate made such an endorsement, Bowen campaigned for Roosevelt. In 1913, women in Illinois gained a limited franchise and the right to hold certain offices. With encouragement from her network of activist supporters, Bowen became a Progressive Party candidate for Cook County Board in 1914, along with MARY McDOWELL and SOPHONISBA BRECKINRIDGE; Bowen had to withdraw her candidacy due to serious illness.
Simultaneous with Bowen's partisan activities as a suffrage supporter was her 1914-24 presidency of the nonpartisan Woman's City Club. Resigning the presidency of the Hull-House Woman's Club to accept this new position, Bowen felt that she would now be able to extend her sphere of influence beyond the Hull-House neighborhood, since the Woman's City Club had a citywide membership. Beginning with her presidency, the Woman's City Club's views on public policy were [end page 103] sought out by both city of Chicago and Cook County officials. Bowen led the Woman's City Club in expanded activities to promote citizenship education and to monitor the city administration's enforcement of laws. In the March 1915 Woman's City Club Bulletin, Bowen strongly encouraged women to vote in the April 1915 mayoral election because "women [hold] the balance of power" (p. 1) in that election.
In 1916, when Republican presidential candidate Charles Evans Hughes endorsed a federal amendment for woman suffrage, Bowen supported Hughes. During the June 1916 Republican convention in Chicago that nominated Hughes, the Chicago Equal Suffrage Association headed by Bowen organized a parade of five thousand women to march two miles down Michigan Avenue to the Coliseum.
During World War I, in recognition of Bowen's elite social status and the key position she held in political and civic circles, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden appointed her to the Illinois State Council of Defense; she was the only woman member. As appointed chair of the Woman's Committee of the Governor's Council and as elected chair of the Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense, Illinois Division, Bowen worked with the heads of Illinois women's organizations. It was Bowen who spearheaded the establishment of an intricate statewide organization that mobilized women for the war effort. That effort included registering women for war work, raising funds to finance the war, and demonstrating techniques of food conservation. A statewide network of trained women speakers carried "the war message to people in every part of the state" (Bowen, "The War Work," 95). Bowen and her committees assisted women in finding job training and wartime employment and in training farm women to maintain their family farms.
During this war effort, Bowen's friendship with Jane Addams became more strained because of Addams's pacifism and refusal to support the United States in World War I. Compounding the rift were not only Addams's ideological position and Bowen's formal role in the war effort, but also the fact that Bowen was most anxious about her two sons fighting overseas. Years later, Bowen referred to "that horrid time of the war when we differed so radically" (Bowen to Addams, February 26, 1926, Jane Addams Papers).
After World War I, in 1920, as president of the Woman's City Club, Bowen took an active part in getting large numbers of women registered to vote in the presidential election, a right Illinois women were able to exercise because of the 1913 state suffrage law. Bowen believed the example of women voting in large numbers would move ratification of the proposed Nineteenth Amendment forward. With the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, the National American Woman Suffrage Association held its spring 1920 convention in Chicago and became the League of Women Voters. At that convention, Bowen was one of several prominent speakers as well as a recipient of a Certificate for Distinguished Work in the Cause of Woman Suffrage. When the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association met in October 1920 to organize the Illinois chapter of the League of Women Voters, Bowen was elected one of its directors.
With the end of the war and ensuing high prices, Bowen was appointed the Woman Fair Price Commissioner for Illinois by U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Bowen found it difficult to get sufficient money to pay clerks' salaries, was inundated with advice about how to manage and organize, and became the object of public disapproval; she resigned after about a year.
Bowen argued in favor of women's running for public office as both an exercise of the newly achieved "privileges and responsibilities" (Woman's City Club Bulletin, December 1921, 8-9) of their full citizenship and as an influence in the "new social order" (pp. 8-9). Advocating participation in both "party councils and government activities," (pp. 9-10), Bowen strongly urged women to run for office because of the contributions and leadership qualities that women could bring to public service in a democracy.
Joining the newly established Woman's Roosevelt Republican Club and soon becoming its vice-president and later its president, Bowen insisted that she detested politics and everything associated with it. Yet, she argued that because of political party domination in the United States, if one cared for "good government" (Speeches, Addresses, and Letters, vol. 2, 689), women had to relinquish nonpartisanship, join political parties, become loyal party supporters, and thereby influence both the nomination and election of qualified reform-minded male and female candidates. Such partisan activity would demonstrate "the power of women's votes" (Speeches, Addresses, and Letters, vol. 2, 689) and work toward good government. However difficult it was for Bowen to compromise by endorsing an entire Republican ticket that included a few less-than-qualified male candidates, Bowen and the Woman's Roosevelt Republican Club were instrumental in supporting the nomination and election of Mary Bartelme, the first woman judge in Cook County. Years later, while at times refusing to endorse certain Republican candidates, Bowen and the organization endorsed and helped to elect RUTH HANNA McCORMICK to the U.S. House of Representatives.
It was because of Bowen's political, social, and reformist networks and demonstrated leadership that there was some discussion in 1923 of a Louise deKoven Bowen candidacy for mayor of Chicago. Bowen's strengths as a mayoral candidate included publicity as a woman candidate, appeal to the women's vote, refusal to build a political machine, and lack of association with the Ku Klux Klan, which was in its heyday in Chicago. Though Bowen later insisted that she "had no idea whatever of running for mayor" ("Chicago's First Woman World's Fair Closes Its Successful Exposition," 215-16), she did note, "Had I been 20 years younger I would have liked to try it" (pp. 215-16) because campaigning would have produced activity and publicity for her municipal program. Yet Bowen was especially satisfied that, because she delayed her response on her possible mayoral candidacy and because newspapers and others publicly and privately debated the possibility, both the Democratic and Republican parties nominated "good" (Speeches, Addresses, and Letters, vol. 2, 702) mayoral candidates. Shortly after, Bowen was appointed one of three women on the Republican National Committee.
In April 1925, Bowen chaired the eight-day Woman's World's Fair held in Chicago, organized by the Illinois Republican Women's Club and the Woman's Roosevelt Republican Club. The plan was to demonstrate women's achievements in [end page 104] the trades, professions, and the arts, and to do so by holding annual fairs. While President Calvin Coolidge opened the exposition via a radio address, Vice-President Charles G. Dawes, an Illinoisan, closed the fair in person. Bowen herself emphasized the nonpartisan aspect of recognizing women's achievements. In describing the exposition luncheon given for "famous women" ("Chicago's First Woman World's Fair," 453), Bowen noted that Jane Addams, who sat to her left, was a "prominent LaFollette worker" (p.453). Bowen headed the organizing group in 1926; fairs were also held in 1927 and 1928.
In 1935, when Jane Addams became seriously ill, she was taken to Louise deKoven Bowen's home, where she remained until she was hospitalized for the last time and died. Bowen resigned from the JPA presidency after thirty-five years to devote more time to Hull-House. Appointed acting president of the settlement, and then president in addition to her position as treasurer, Bowen began to work with ADENA MILLER RICH, the newly appointed head resident. From the start, Bowen voiced reservations about Rich's half-time appointment to a position she felt was a full-time task. Rich, who was also director of the Immigrants' Protective League, contributed her time as head resident and did not receive a salary. Bowen remained critical; she was concerned that Rich was not accessible to Hull-House residents, to people in the Hull-House neighborhood, and to Bowen herself. Additionally, Bowen faced fund-raising problems and found it difficult to fund Hull-House's $100,000 annual budget, especially in the midst of the Great Depression. Bowen recognized the need for additional members on the Hull-House board and hoped that the appointment of one or two businessmen with financial expertise would assist her in the management and investment of Hull-House's $640,000 endowment.
The apparent tension between Rich and Bowen was in large part due to Bowen's habit of spending all her mornings at Hull-House, while Rich did her part-time work there in the evenings. Although the settlement seemed to be functioning well, Bowen knew very little of the day-to-day operations, unlike her practice at Hull-House, which she managed during Jane Addams's frequent absences. Though the budget was balanced, Bowen was concerned that to receive Community Fund financial assistance, Hull-House would have to hire a full-time head resident with a salary. Finally, Rich resigned, voicing her own concern about the "respective functions" (Trustee "Minutes," April 2, 1937, Hull-House Association Records) of Hull-House trustees and Hull-House residents.
Rich was replaced by Charlotte E. Carr, who had been executive director of the Emergency Relief Bureau of the city of New York during the Great Depression. Bowen was confident Carr would "again put Hull-House on the map" (Bowen to Dr. Taylor, November 10, 1937, Margaret Dreier Robins Papers). While Bowen admired Carr's hard work, strong character, and dynamic personality, Bowen nevertheless remained concerned about financial support. With the passing of Jane Addams and her generation of supporters, Bowen recognized that invoking Addams's name to solicit contributions was no longer effective. Working with Carr, Bowen and the Hull-House Association Board increased its number of trustees, retained some additional Community Fund support, and planned a fiftieth anniversary celebration for publicity to raise funds. Bowen herself, by personal letters to nearly twenty-nine hundred people, raised tens of thousands of dollars each year and in 1941, with a projected budget of more than $131,000, personally raised almost $51,000.
Within a short time, Bowen considered Carr a friend who had appropriately taken Addams's place. Likewise, Bowen was proud of Carr's political activities and contacts in Washington, D.C., and her interest in labor relations; but Bowen remained concerned. In 1940, Bowen commented: "I hope she will not be too violently for Roosevelt because almost all the money which supports the [Hull] House comes from Willkie supporters and they would not like our endorsing Roosevelt" (Bowen to Margaret D. Robins, October 1, 1940, Robins Papers). Carr was interested both in reinstating Hull-House as a "pacemaker" (Trustee "Minutes," December 21, 1942, Hull-House Association Records) in the settlement movement and in changing the conditions of the Hull-House neighborhood. Bowen and the board were concerned about the divisiveness of politics should the Hull-House director take a "leading roll [sic] in a political campaign" (Trustee "Minutes," December 21, 1942). There was concern for reduced and canceled contributions because of Carr's "partisan political activities" (Trustee "Minutes," December 21, 1942). Bowen herself was also worried that during Carr's tenure $125,000 were spent from unrestricted endowments, with $80,000 of this amount used to cover the yearly budget deficits. Ultimately, the problem with finances intertwined with politics and the future of Hull-House. Carr resigned, and shortly after, Russell Ballard became head resident. Bowen was made honorary president, though she continued as treasurer until 1953.
Even with Ballard as head resident of Hull-House and Bowen as honorary president, the eighty-four-year-old stalwart continued to guard the traditions and reputation of Hull-House and Jane Addams. Bowen admonished Ballard for suggesting that board members serve as employees of the board. She emphasized to Ballard the importance of Hull-House policies that were neutral on "politics, party affiliation, religion and labor unions" (Bowen to Ballard, February 8, 1946, Russell Ballard Papers). She herself had made up the difference in lost contributions when Jane Addams had appeared "too much in sympathy with working people," ("First Citizen of Chicago," Louise deKoven Bowen Scrapbooks, vol. 3, 27), but times had changed. Bowen objected to Ballard's use of the Jane Addams Memorial Room in the settlement's original building as his office; she tried to maintain it intact in order to preserve Addams's historic contributions. Almost six years after Ballard's appointment, Bowen voiced concern that he was becoming too involved in politics, and she referred to Charlotte Carr's involvement with the 1940 National Democratic Convention in Chicago that nominated Franklin Roosevelt. It had resulted in a crucial loss of contributions to Hull-House.
Perhaps compounding Bowen's continuing concern and involvement with the finances of Hull-House was her own personal situation. Years earlier Bowen and her husband had acquired Baymeath, a nineteen-bedroom summer estate in Bar Harbor, Maine. In the decades after her husband's death, Bowen spent most of her summers at Baymeath, where friends [end page 105] and family members stayed both for short and long visits. In part because of failing health, but also because she could not afford its upkeep, Bowen decided to sell Baymeath in 1940. Although she was used to contributing large sums to Hull-House, even Bowen lamented in the 1940s that she was "sadly hampered by the thought that I would better be careful" (Bowen to Ada Hicks, July 10, 1940, Ballard Papers); by then she had given more than one million dollars to Hull-House.
During most of the period of Bowen's activism with Hull-House, she had also been an organizer and longtime board member (1909-50) and vice-president (1912-50) of United Charities in Chicago. Jane Addams had also been aboard member of United Charities. Attempting to facilitate cooperation among Chicago's charitable organizations, United Charities investigated the extent of Chicago's poverty and helped find jobs for the needy.
In the early 1900s, Bowen and Addams were board members for the Visiting Nurse Association (VNA), whose major goal was to bring nursing care to poor families. As with United Charities, the VNA conducted investigative studies of the needs of the poor. As a result of Bowen's initiative, the Chicago Board of Education, and later the city of Chicago for a period of time, assumed financial support for visiting school nurses who were sent to sick children's homes.
Always a political activist, in the last twenty years of her life Bowen continued to speak out on political issues and to support both Republican and Democratic candidates she felt were worthy. As a Republican woman, she endorsed Ruth Hanna McCormick for U.S. Senate in 1930. As a member of an independent nonpartisan committee, Bowen endorsed Democrat Anton Cermak as the Chicago mayoral candidate in 1931. Years later, as a Republican who considered herself independent-minded, Bowen supported Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson, the newly nominated Democratic presidential candidate. In 1952 he gave his first postnomination speech from the balcony of Louise deKoven Bowen's Astor Street home. Regarding issues, Bowen opposed the Equal Rights Amendment out of fear that it would abolish the protective labor laws she had long supported and fought to obtain for women. This was the position of the majority of women's organizations from the 1920s through the 1940s. Yet, starting in 1914, for almost forty years she lamented that not enough women were in public life.
Louise deKoven Bowen died at the age of ninety-four. She is buried in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago. Through almost a century of social, political, and cultural changes, Bowen remained active until a few months before her death. No understanding of Chicago history from the turn of the twentieth century is complete without knowledge of Bowen's participation in the reform movements of the Progressive Era, especially in the efforts to advance women's citizenship rights, and in the organizations that she helped build, run, and sustain, including Hull-House, the Juvenile Protective Association, and United Charities.
Sources. Louise deKoven Bowen Papers, 1864-1953, including Louise deKoven Bowen's Scrapbooks, vols. 1-4, and Woman's City Club of Chicago records, are at the CHS [Chicago Historical Society]. The CHS also has a clipping file for Louise deKoven Bowen. The Margaret Dreier Robins Papers are available at CHS in the microfilm edition of Papers of the Women's Trade Union League and Its Principal Leaders (1981). At UIC Spec. Coll. are the Hull-House Association Records; the Russell Ballard Papers; the Juvenile Protective Association Records; the Adena Miller Rich Papers; the Jane Addams Memorial Collection; and The Jane Addams Papers (Microfilm Edition, 1985). Bowen's published writings include Safeguards for City Youth at Work and Play (1914); Growing Up with a City (1926); Speeches, Addresses, and Letters of Louise deKoven Bowen: Reflecting Social Movements in Chicago, 2 vols. (1937); Mary E. Humphrey, ed., Open Windows: Stories of People and Places (1946); and Baymeath (privately printed 1945). Bowen's articles include "Colored People of Chicago," Survey Midmonthly, November 1, 1913, originally published as a Juvenile Protective Association pamphlet, The Colored People of Chicago (1913); "The War Work of the Women of Illinois," Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society, 1919; "Chicago's First Woman World's Fair Closes Its Successful Exposition," Journal of Illinois State History Society, July 1925. Articles by Bowen were published frequently in the Woman's City Club Bulletin and Survey Midmonthly. Jane Addams's chapter on Joseph T. Bowen in The Excellent Becomes the Permanent (1932) is helpful for an understanding of the Bowens' marriage. Kathleen D. McCarthy, ed., Lady Bountiful Revisited: Women, Philanthropy, and Power (1990), has an essay by Kathryn Kish Sklar, "Who Funded Hull House?" that discusses Bowen's financial contributions to the settlement. Paul Gerard Anderson, "The Good to Be Done: A History of the Juvenile Protective Association of Chicago, 1898-1976; 2 vols. (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Chicago, 1988), provides important background. See Sharon Z. Alter, "A Woman for Mayor?" Chicago History, 1986. [ends on page 106]
Credit: Women Building Chicago 1790-1990: A Biographical Dictionary, by Rima Lunin Schultz and Adele Hast, (Indiana University Press, 2001). Reprinted with permission from the Chicago Area Women's History Council.